The Research & Development (R&D) service area is all about the business side of innovation. Consultants are engaged to develop and improve the bottom-line of innovation spend, which ranges from optimizing new product development (NPD) processes, to boosting portfolio complexity management and improving the efficiency of the R&D organization, both from a ‘hard’ (e.g. structure / process / system) as well as a ‘soft’ (e.g. human capital) point of view. Product lifecycle management (PLM) is another source of productivity improvement in the area of innovation. Decisions involving how long to keep a product in a portfolio and when to take a product out of service can be particularly difficult to make internally consultants are therefore frequently brought in to advise around the elimination of no longer profitable products and to extend the profitable life of products currently in the market.